Education is considered the backbone in shaping the country’s future course of Action. The great nations of the World who have achieved tremendous growth and Success, and emerged as the most developed countries of the world, have especially focused on Education- preferably the Professional Higher Education in the field of Engineering, Medicine, Finance and Planning. The developed nations also have focused on the advancement of science and technology-based education and bridged the gaps in Educational outreach.
The countries like Japan, China, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, America, Australia, and England have reached the heights of Success through Education. The Average Literacy rates in these countries are above 90% as compared to other countries.
The Developed Nations of the World have brought many innovations in education, Information and Communication Technologies and built advanced governance System and E-Government Initiatives. Such initiatives have eased the process of Education outreach. The online infrastructure of these developed nations have prompted the developing nations like Pakistan to learn from these countries and improve the Education Information Technologies and improve the Education Standards from Primary to Secondary, and from College Education to University Education.
The Higher Education Commission (HEC) formerly the University Grants Commission (UGC) has played a vital role in building linkages between the universities in lieu of Research and Academic Excellence. Especially the former HEC Chairman Dr Atta-ur-Rahman’ tenure is considered the golden era for Improving the spectrum of Research industries and Capacity Building of The Universities and Degree awarding Institutes DAI’s. He also set the SOP’s of HEC and made it a Central regulatory Body of Higher Education Institutes and Introduced the ranking system in the Universities to improve the quality of education and promoted research-oriented Education at Graduate and Post Gradual level .
Despite all this, the higher Education outreach is still the far cry for rural population as there is a great dearth of Higher Education Institutes in Rural areas of Pakistan.Even the existing Institutes in the Rural areas are not imparting the Modern Education since the same obsolete type of Teaching Methodology is adopted in these Institutes. Even at the Degree Colleges fall short in imparting standardized Education on Modern lines as being offered at the Reputed Institutes .
As a result, the number of Graduates produced by Rural Area Institutes per year , is too big but their Skills are not the same as compared to the Graduates of Urban Area Institutes. The Reasons are several but the main reasons are the lack of modern laboratories, lack of ICT based facilities, lack highly qualified Faculty and Trained Administrative & Managerial Staff to boost the academic Excellence of the Institution and transform it into an Ideal Institute to set the precedence for those who follow.
The Rural and Urban Divide has also divided the quality of Education imparted and the degrees are offered at District and Tehseel Level. If we speak of Sindh only, the virus of Copy Culture have plagued the very roots of our Degree Level education and the Production is very substandard.so much so ,that the college graduates are not able to clear the Entry tests of various universities to pursue Master Level Studies .
Unfortunately, the situation becomes miserable when we come to know that in Sindh and Other Provinces, there are only Degree colleges for Science Students offering Regular Admissions in F.Sc Pre-Medical and Pre-Engineering Groups whereas limited admissions are offered to Arts or Humanities Students at Tehseel Level. In Addition to these, the affiliated colleges also offer regular Admissions in B.Sc and B.A but apart from the colleges of Big Cities, the attendance Ratio in Rural or Tehseel Level is very nominal and the classes are not run properly for such Degree Level students due to various reasons such lack of required Staff , Syllabus and Books ,funds and the interest of Students due to socio Economic Conditions .
Ironically, students without guidance and career counseling take admissions either by Parents Wish or on their own preferably in Engineering and Medical Groups but they do not know that there are other fields such as commerce, computer science and Fine Arts for Intermediate Students to opt for if they are willing to take admissions in these groups other than traditional pre-Engineering and Pre-Medical groups. The main reason is that there is no any college at Tehseel or District Level to offer Commerce, Computer Science and Fine Arts in Sindh . Compellingly, most of the students seek admissions at Science Colleges as they donot have alternate Options. .
The Education in Punjab is considered more standard as compared to other provinces since in Punjab, every college offers admissions in Pre-Engineering, Pre-Medical, Commerce, Fine Arts and Computer Science. Even their degree Classes are standardized and faculty is also efficient to impart quality based Education . The Education in KP has been improved tremendously under current PTI regime specially they have focused the Secondary Education and College Education . Even Baluchistan has improved Education Spectrum ,yet it has limited number of Higher Education Institutes and DAI’s that is only 8.
The massive urbanization and ever-increasing population warrants to establish more Higher Education institutes at Urban and Rural areas so that rural population may seek higher Education at Graduate and Post Graduate level at their hometown and head to Bigger cities for Research-based advance Education such as M.Phil, PhD, M.E, D.E etc. This will greatly help in minimizing overcrowding in Higher Education Institutes as you all know that quantity affects the quality of Education.
The Recent statistics show that after Census 2017 that Pakistan needs more Universities, Schools and colleges, Hospitals for People to accommodate and facilitate.
The Demand of Higher Education has been ever increasing and several Higher Education Institutes both in Public and Private Sector are being established in urban areas but the rural areas are deprived of Higher Education Institutes.
If we take a look at Higher Education Institutes at Division level in Sindh, We will come to know that Larkana Division has a One Medical University, One Engineering College, One General University Campus of Sindh University at Larkana city only, A New Campus of SALU has been established at Shahdadkot, Shikarpur to accommodate the Rural and Population of about 6192380 of Division Larkana . There is no any Higher Education Institute at District Level, especially in District Kashmore and Jacobabad.
It is also ironic that as per Census 2017, District Kashmore has the population of 1089169, yet there is only single Degree College at Kandhkot for Three Tehseels i.e. Kandhkot, Kashmore and Kandhkot. Fortunately, a new Degree college has recently been established at Karampur but that too is without SNE may take a year to function properly .
More Over ,The province of Punjab Tops with Maximum number of Universities and Degree Awarding Institutes DAI’s with 60 both in Public and Private Sector , followed by Sindh with 55 HEI’s in Public and Private Sector , KP with 35 Number of HEI’s in Public and Private Sector and fourthly only 8 Universities in Baluchistan.
Additionally, there are 7 universities in Azad Jammu & Kashmir out of which One university namely Al-Khair University has been banned for Degree Verification. It is worthy to mention here that there are 20 universities in Federal Capital Islamabad.
HEC website also shows that there total 186 Universities /DAI’s to accommodate students from the population of 20,77,74,520 of Pakistan. The 186 HEI’s/DAI’s are just salt in flour for the ever-increasing population of Pakistan since we need more HEI’s and DAI’s .
It is also an irony that from 186 HEI’s and DAI’s, most of HEI’s and DAI’s are established at Big cities such as Karachi with 41, Lahore with 34, Islamabad with 20 respectively. The Number shows that most of these HEI’s and DAI’s are available to Urban Population whereas Rural Population has only limited chances for getting admission in Medical, Engineering College or General University in comparison to Urban Population.
This divide is further aggravated when the need arises for a Professional Accountancy Institutes such as Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan (ICAP) Karachi and Institute of Management Accountants of Pakistan (ICMAP) Karachi. These Accountancy specific Institutes are available for Urban Population such as the metropolitan city of Karachi only. There may be very few private Accountancy Colleges in other provinces but the authorized Accountancy colleges are only ICAP and ICMAP offering CA, ICMA Degree for Accounting and Auditing Professionals.
It is also recommended that ICAP and ICMAP should establish their campuses at other cities to facilitate the rural Population to extend Higher Education outreach. Furthermore, the HEC ‘s plan to establish District based campuses of various Medical, Engineering and General University campuses is a good initiative but the question arises that whether these campuses will impart the same level of Standardized Education as these do at their main campuses –is a big concern since at campus they will have limited resources, staff and limited Technology to impart Education and will offer only Graduate and Post Graduate Degrees .
It is also the great concern that most of the campuses are established without need-based analysis and influenced by Political will. Such campuses fail to cater to the needs of the community.
HEC should personally monitor the Campuses Establishment, keeping in view the Population Needs and Requirements for such HEI or DAI campus.
The HEC should also expedite the process of Proposed HEI’s and DAI’s campuses so that drop out ratio may be minimized after Intermediate. Especially, the upper Sindh i.e. Sukkur and Larkana Division may have more HEI’s and DAI’s especially Medical, Engineering and General Universities since Sukkur is 3rd Biggest City of Sindh having no any General university Except the IBA-Sukkur.
District Kashmore immediately requires two Degree Colleges for Both boys and Girls and a General university Campus, an Engineering College and a Medical College to cater to the needs of 1089169 Population and the bordering Districts of Punjab i.e Rajanpur and Dera Bugti District of Baluchistan as Kashmore is Gateway to Sindh for People coming from Punjab and Baluchistan province.
It is very important to know that If our Rulers want to build the nation then Higher Education is necessary to impart professional education and enable the people to do research in multiple fields and build the foundations Knowledge Driven Economy.
INGOS And The Future Of Unemployed Youth in Pakistan
Pakistan has experienced a mushrooming growth of INGOs and NGOs during the Musharraf era, the Earthquake of 8th October 2008, the super flood of 2010 and the frequent drought in Thar and other desert areas. Many international INGOs helped people in rescue, Relief, Rehabilitation people and reconstruction of damaged houses.
Every INGO came with their own key areas such as poverty alleviation , Environment , Peace , Water and Sanitation ,shelter , social mobilization and advocacy ,governance and Democracy , voter education and women representations , Human rights , Child rights , Old age people , Alternative Energy such as Solar , wind and Biogas initiatives , health and education , reproductive health, Honour Killing , religious harmony and other sectors. So much so that every INGO had own priority to work and even involved local NGOs as implementation partners (IPs). Most of NGOs are funded by Unicef, WHO, European Union ECHO, UK AID, AusAid, USAID, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Turkish Government, Bangladesh.
The INGOs benefitted the local youth through employment, vendors and hiring labour for the projects with high wages. I still remember, when I was working with a development organization as Program Manager, I was startled to see youth workers aged between 20 to 30 working in various projects of emergency especially the super floods of 2010. The Average salaries of these youth were equal to grade 16, 17 or even grade 18 government officer thus luring the people to Development sector after shrinking public and private jobs in Pakistan ., They were earning 30 k to 80K per month given their qualification, Skills and experience. The Project Managers, Coordinators, Provincial managers crossed 100K to 300K depending on the INGO and Nature of donor-funding as per approved budget.
A local mason was reported by saying that during 2010 floods he managed to earn 100K in a month by working on shelter projects of an INGO namely Acted. He said prior to flood emergency, he had hardly earned his living and hardly had eaten the two times meals.
He said that INGO contracted him to work on the construction projects and he was under heavy overload that impelled him to hire own workers and even started his own construction company and won contracts.
Another vendor selling paints and sanitary fittings said that working with INGOs, his sales multiplied to extent that he started two warehouses to meet demand.
One of the development workers said that working with the INGOs, He was able to buy his own house in a year as prior to this; he lived in a rented house.
These were the few examples that became the case studies due to the intervention of these International Development Organizations throughout Pakistan especially in Baluchistan, KPK and Sindh.
Sindh, KP and Punjab experienced severe damages to roads, properties, infrastructure and livestock during the super floods of 2010. INGOs from major European and Asian countries pour in Pakistan and started working on flood emergency Projects from Rationing to shelters and tents, Health and hygiene kits, Public Health Promotion, Education and Water tankering.
Several Organizations engaged the people for Cash for Work activities in the villages to rebuild their houses and damaged tracks and roads. This gave great satisfaction to these flood affected segments to earn the respectable living working on their village development Plan. Hundreds of educated and talented youth became part of various INGOs and helped their fellow Pakistanis besides the foreign Aid workers. The relief camps were set up as per the Government plan with help of local district Administration.
The government had to fulfil a mammoth task to mitigate the disaster as it was beyond the capacity of Government to have dealt with all alone but with the help of development partners, it was fulfilled smoothly and effectively.
It was reported that people continued receiving aid for food, shelter and nutritional items from INGOs including the UN agencies such as UNICEF, UNDP, WHO, UNOCHA, UNHCR, FAO, UN-HABITAT, WFP etc for a year. UNOCHA was drawing and preparing maps for the affected areas and it played a pivotal role in targeting the population that needed relief and located them properly. WFP provided food items for adults as well as nutritional products for the children including chocolate, biscuits and milk for infants and babies.
UNICEF promoted the healthy-learning activities among the children such as games, play way learning techniques and painting competitions for children in relief camps and brought smiles back on their faces to forget the miseries of the flood.
All the INGOs did their best and helped the Federal and provincial governments to mitigate the natural disaster and helped in rebuilding the infrastructure and creating resilience among the people.
Now the question arises that asking INGOs to pack up owing to their suspicious activities may lead to making these youth jobless again since they cannot get such handsome salaries even in government or public sectors.
The initiative may put jobs of hundreds of aid workers and development professionals on stake since they have been working in these development organizations for the last 18 years and have gained tremendous knowledge, experience and developed their skills and have become professionals in their field. Snatching bread from their hand tantamounts to throwing them in muddy quagmire of unemployment as most of them have become overage and are not eligible to apply for any government job thus their opportunities become limited with the looming sword of the ouster of these INGOs and ever-shrinking job market.
It is recommended that the Government should regulate the activities of INGO either through SECP or Interior Ministry with the help of Ministries of Social welfare and the Ministry of Labour so that the activities of INGOs and their local implementation partners may be monitored to avoid any breach of trust or violation of regulatory framework envisaged by Pakistan.
The Development partners may help government end the faulty contract system that has plagued the development schemes and incurring the loss of billions through the delivery of substandard structures owing to commissioning and percentage system existing in public sector especially the Government Treasuries and Accounts offices.
The rampant corruption committed by the contractors and the Public works departments call for the government to assign public sector schemes to INGOs/NGOs through competitive bidding and shortlisting on the basis of their previous performance. The Development organizations have deep roots in the masses and may prove beneficial in delivering standard outputs as per the demands of the public.
PTI Government should act sensibly and should come up with INGOs/NGOs governance or regulation policy to curb the suspicious activities of any INGO or local NGO and save thousands of Development professionals specially the Youth from falling prey to the monster of unemployment as government seems to have no alternate option to engage these professionals elsewhere given their knowledge in emergency nature projects . Their career will be at stake if the INGOs are forced to close their operations in Pakistan.
Pakistan frequently faces emergencies and natural disasters in terms of food scarcity, drought, malnutrition, stunting and famine in Thar desert of Sindh as well as in the desert areas of Punjab and Baluchistan while these international development organizations may steer the country out of such crises and disasters if their services are availed and valued in the purview of job creation and disaster mitigation instead of forcing them to pack up and leave .
Adopting the Best Governance System in Pakistan
Pakistan has always oscillated between the good and the bad Governance Models as both the civil and the military powers holding the reins of the country one after another. It is unfortunate for the people of Pakistan that despite the passage of 71 years of Independence, we have not been able to find the best Governance Model yet that may serve our subjects in a better way and bring social and economic prosperity.
The Post-Independence period was tattered as Pakistan faced various economic, Social and infrastructural challenges.Pakistan was deprived of its due share from the joint resources at the time of partition.
Yet, Quaid’s able leadership and brave leadership did not let Pakistan go down since he was visionary and had the clear roadmap to steer the county through crisis to prosperity with planning and untiring efforts. He was of the View that if Pakistan’s problems were not addressed or resolved, It may have failed as the state.
The consequential Martial Laws furthered the woes of people that implemented dictatorial laws which were not meant for the people and were contrary to human rights as safeguarded by the constitution. These were the basis that prompted people to denounce such the military coups and raised their voices to regain their freedom of speech and freedom to act according to one’s wishes and intentions.
Pakistan has experienced both the Presidential and parliamentary form of governance. It has also experienced Civil and Military coups and even sustained so far except the Fall of Dhaka in 1971 when Sheikh Mujib was denied the Government despite having an absolute majority to form the government.
As a result of Governance Crisis, Pakistan has suffered on many fronts i.e economic, social and Security. The Ill-will of the feudal nature of Politicians has forcibly sunk the ship of Pakistan by creating a leadership vacuum and gave rise to corrupt practices that played havoc with its fragile and fractured path.
The changing Governance Models, lack of proper Constitutional Development and consensus building have forced the Fragile state to fall in the Governance crisis since no policy framework was followed that may have provided the basis of Constitutional development. The Institutional Building was not initiated that triggered the constant pull in the civil-military relationship.
That was evident from the promulgation of First Constitution on 23rd March 1956, Nine years after the independence, unfortunately, the Martial law was imposed after two and half years of its inaction on 7th October 1958 by the powerful man in our history General Ayoob Khan.
Being a military General, Ayoob khan wanted a controlled and reasonably weaker form of Democracy, since he believed the western form of Democracy does not suit to Pakistan. Consequently, he introduced the 1962 Constitution which came into force on 1st March 1962.
The biggest change in form governance was the introduction of the Presidential form of government since all the powers vested in the president. He was both head of state and head of Government. The Provinces were given autonomy, equality of mankind, independence of the judiciary; rights of minorities were salient features of the constitution.
The Islamic advisory council was also constituted to advise Govt. over Islamic injunctions or laws.
The presidential form of Government was more suitable since all the power vested in President who was elected directly and there was no burden of ineffective legislators just the skeleton Ministers, Provincial Governors and the staff was enough to run the state affairs in a very effective manner since decision making was on the fast track.
“Even the founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam had envisaged 71 years ago during his speech found in the handwritten paper that the presidential form of Government is suitable for Pakistan since a parliamentary form of Government does not work owing to feudal vested interests, illiteracy and lack of visionary leadership.
Actually, he had given clear roadmap that as long as feudalism and feudal approach exists in Pakistan, the democracy cannot develop its roots deeper since these feudal politicians have vested interests that are detrimental to people who vote them to power and tantamount to Islamic Ideologies.”
With the resignation of General Ayoob, the constitutional crises once again aggravated with the abrogation of 1962 constitution.
The story unfolded when Sheikh Mujib ur Rahman had succeeded in winning the majority in the first ever general elections of Pakistan held in 1970 but the then military ruler, President General Yahya Khan, had refused categorically to transfer power to him. Sheikh Mujib was imprisoned in Mianwali. General Yahya resigned succumbing to internal pressure.
Then we had the best constitution gifted by Shaheed Zulfiquar Ali Bhutto. The 1973 constitution promulgated on 14th August 1973 with an overwhelming majority. The 1973 constitution was the turning point in the history of Pakistan as it was considered the complete constitution which safeguarded the rights of every citizen. Though East Pakistan was separated in 1971, yet Bhutto steer the country out of governance and constitutional crisis and had solved the long-standing issue.
Even, he was not spared, he was hanged under Zia regime and was inducted in the Murder plot of Nawaz Mohammad Ahmad Khan Kasuri’s, consequently hanged on 3rd April 1978. Bhutto during his premiership reshaped the foreign policy and made people friendly and people-centric decisions that disrupted the status quo and had great economic extinct since he wanted to establish a World Islamic Bank in Pakistan with the help of Islamic Countries.
Bhutto’s speech UN general assembly still echoes in our hearts as No leader in our history had made such fearless and emotional speech that rocked the Superpowers.
Unfortunately, we could not get such a brave and fearless leader who could speak eye to eye with the enemies and even to the Superpowers.
Though we had a leader like Mohammad Khan Junejo who was also a good Statesman and had ignited the real dream of Welfare State his powers were curtailed by former Chief Martial law Administrator and later Elected President through the so-called referendum General Ziaul Haq.
Later, Benazir Bhutto, the great daughter of Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto rose to heights of success but his teammates sunk her ship through corrupt practices in Government. Then, Pakistan went into the two-party system i.e. PPP and PML from 1988 to October 1999.
In 1999, Pakistan experienced yet another military involvement that sent PML-N government packing by General Musharraf. PM Nawaz was jailed and later released on the interference of Saudi kings and exiled with family.
Musharraf after three years, held elections and his Party PML-Q win the elections. In 2007, Benazir Bhutto returned from Self Exile and apparently assassinated during the Public gathering.
Benazir’s Murder brought the turmoil in the country. PPP won 2008 elections on a sympathy vote and Zardari became the President after Musharraf relinquished due to fears of impeachment.
It was the first time that any civilian Government had completed their term and laid the foundation of Democratic Transition.
The PPP government was not impressive and effective but the only good thing they had done that was the 18th amendments that had offered autonomy to the provinces and few federal ministries were devolved to the Provinces including Health and Education.
The 18th amendment also paved the way for the premier to be elected for the third term as earlier it was just two terms. PML-N won 2013 elections with the majority and completed their term but PM Nawaz was disqualified due to Panama Papers case few months before completion of the tenure.
Finally, democratic transition worked again, and the PTI came into power with the slogan of change and making Naya Pakistan.
if we analyze our history, we would be disappointed to know that most of the time, the Martial Law Administrator governed our country as compared to the civilian Government. This gives the message that Pakistani electoral framework only suits a single powerful system means the presidential form of Government as practised in Turkey, Afghanistan and US.
The presidential form of Government is the strong as the president is the head of State and the head of a Government at the same time. He appoints his ministers from professionals, technocrats and Legislature. He makes timely decisions as a Parliamentary form of Government does not allow implementing policies without the debate and without approval from the parliament.
We are still going through a transition and learning from our past mistakes, yet we need to mull over that which Governance Model suits our people–Parliamentary form of Government or Presidential form of Government or Mixture of both.
It is not the time of meddling with both systems or engage in the debate of good or bad system but we should adopt the best governance system suits Pakistan and benefits the common men and bridges the gap between state and the subjects. The system which provides access to justice offers equal opportunities regardless of religion, caste or creed.
It has been seven decades since independence that we are struggling to form a strong and vibrant system that benefits the people of Pakistan. The issue warrants public debate and is open to the public to give their input which system of Governance may be fruitful for them that strengthens the federation, Federating units and builds the basis of good governance.
Though we have a new government in place but the old players of Opposition Parties PPP, PML-N and JUI, MMA and ANP are giving a tough time to hide their corrupt practices. Therefore, if we want the state to flourish and prosper, we need to put the presidential form of governance for a four or five year to analyze whether it is physible for Pakistan and produces desired results. Either, We have to part ways with the parliamentary form of Government or adhere to the Presidential form of Government as practised in developed nations of the world.
Adopting The Uniform Educational Policy
Education in Pakistan is the most neglected sector as the just meagre budget is allocated for it. The dilapidated buildings, shortage of staff and lack basic facilities present a grim picture which should be the eye-opener for the present PTI govt headed by the most charismatic leader Imran Khan -The prime minister of Pakistan. As a general analysis on basis of recent reports that the govt schools where polling stations were established, lacked the basic facilities of water, electricity, washrooms and furniture
Even, the buildings were old and in very dilapidated conditions posed a grave threat to the polling staff who stayed there. If we categorize the educational standards of Pakistani provinces, we’ll surprisingly reach at the point that education standards in Punjab are considered higher, followed by KPK ranked as 2nd, the Baluchistan ranked as 3rd and unfortunately, Sindh has been ranked as fourth in Pakistan as per the statistics of Aser Pakistan and other development sector institutions conducting various social surveys on education, health, poverty time to time .
This grave and abysmal situation of Education warrants the present PTI govt to focus on education making effective policies to adopt the uniform educational system throughout Pakistan as envisaged in their political manifesto. Subsequent to the 18th amendment, the Education and Health departments became the provincial subjects along with few others resulting in the decline in education and health indices whereas the poverty and illiteracy increased manifold. PTI seems to be eager to amend the Constitution so that health and education may be made Federal subjects.
Furthermore, the inefficient PPPPs successive governments have failed miserably on policy-making grounds to reform and revamp existing educational system Sindh. it failed to curb the use of unfair means in examination system and bartering of various BISEs regarding marks depriving the talented and deserving students of their right.
Such a high-level corruption has wreaked havoc with existing educational systems that prompt the Federal government to intervene and boost the provincial education standard, especially in Sindh through legislation against this social evil that has plagued the very fabric of education –the copy culture. It is termite that has weakened the roots of Education and the main reason for Substandard Education and incompetence amongst the Youth. In the connection, the Federal Education Ministry may frame a committee with equal representation from Four provinces to discuss, evaluate and frame uniform education policy so that same may be implemented in letter and spirit.
Pakistan’s educational system has remained a neglected sector in subsequent governments. None of the Governments gave priority to education sector instead gave priority to PSDP projects to gobble and loot the wealth of Taxpayers of Pakistan in the name of development. Whereas, the developed nations, such as Japan, UK, Russia, Canada and Italy have achieved their success through education and raised their Literacy rates to almost 100 %. Our literacy rate presents a grim and abysmal picture despite the passage of 71 years. We have hardly managed to cross 50% which rings the alarm bells.
The primary education has almost become obsolete and the same is the condition of secondary and higher secondary standard. Most of schools are in dilapidated condition and being run in just records as there is no such physical existence of such schools. There is great dearth of Science, Arts and commerce colleges throughout Pakistan for both boys and girls. Especially, there is a great dearth of the girl’s colleges since the female literacy rate is very low throughout Pakistan especially in Sindh, KP and Baluchistan due to societal challenges that hamper girls’ education in villages, towns and cities owing to tribal customs and Traditions.
The education of girls in rural areas is the distant dream and the poor girls get married in early ages which creates several domestic problems for them owing to these childhood marriages. Sindh government despite imposing Education Emergency in Sindh , did nothing for the education. It is just being managed by some high rank Bureaucratic Regime. The Corruption is Rampant in Education at Top Bureaucracy, Directorates and District Headquarters.
There is a dire need of Adult Education and Non-Formal basic Education to help boost the Literacy rate of Pakistan. The adult education initiative will provide an opportunity to those who could not get education owing to their weak financial strength and Poverty. Poverty is the main issue to be addressed since the dropout ratio at Middle, Secondary, College or Graduate Level is very high as compared to the Primary Level since only 50% of Enrolled Students move to Higher Classes due to enormous reasons such as unavailability of middle and high schools, Unavailability of higher education institutions and universities, Lack of support from the parents due to poverty, Lack of support from the guardians in case of death of their parents, Societal problems ,the social challenges and responsibilities .
There is a grave need of Orphan Education Policy since orphans are always left at the mercy of their guardians either maternal or Paternal. Some guardians support their guards but in many cases, some guardians stop the orphans from getting the education since they declare their inability to support their Educational Expenditure. Such guardians compel their guards to learn Technical Skills from the traditional Mechanics, Electricians, and Automobile Mechanics or forced them to work in Restaurants as waiters to earn their living to support their families.
Devising an orphan children education policy along with child protection policy may receive the welcome response from all the quarters. Similarly, such an initiative will be beneficial for the orphans to continue their education without any hurdle as mostly orphans cannot continue their education due to financial crisis . The federal government may establish residential schools through Pakistan on the lines of The Danish schools of Punjab by providing a Modern Education without any cost. The Danish Schools Model is the best one to bring out of Schoolchildren back to School and provide them with education, residence, food, washing and other domestic necessities.
Finally, If government is serious in devising an effective Policy to promote education throughout Pakistan, it must adopt Uniform Education Policy to create competitive Environments since FPSC and Provincial Public Service Commission reports suggest a major overhaul in education system to bring it at par with global education standards .
Government needs to set up world-class universities and adopt a standard competitive Recruitment policy for the appointment Education staff specially the teachers since the experienced, efficient, hardworking and dedicated teachers lead the students to the heights of success in every field of Education –be it Medical , engineering , science , space , arts ,culture ,history , economy and business studies .
The Government must form an Education Advisory Board containing members from all federating units to research, devise and recommend a uniform education policy so that educational boom could be brought in Pakistan as Great Nations win with the power of education not with guns.
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