The Existing Circumstances are not conducive for any party as most of the mainstream parties are in disarray.There seems to be no party that may be prepared to contest the upcoming Elections of 2018 with thumping majority.
Even the ruling Party Pakistan Muslim league (N) has been in disarray and disintegration after the sudden disqualification of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in Panama Papers Case and Hudaibia papers reference. He was disqualified after the Joint Investigation Report Submitted in the Supreme Court of Pakistan.
The National Accountability Bureau was directed to file references against Ex-PM Nawaz and His Two sons Hassan & Husain Nawaz, daughter Maryam Nawaz and His Son in law Captain Retired Safdar and Current Finance Minister Ishaq Dar -The Father in the law of Nawaz’s Daughter. The Nab Court was tasked to decide the Case in 6 months and announce Sentence under said Rules.
In this connection, the Nab Court served Notices to PM Nawaz, his Two sons, his daughter Maryam Nawaz, His Son in law Captain Safdar and Ishaque Dar the Finance Minister in the Both Cabinets of Former PM Nawaz Sharif and Current PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi.
The First Notices did not comply and none appeared before the court to prove their Innocence. after Serving the notices Twice, NAB Court convicted the Hassan, Husain, Maryam, Captain Safdar and Nawaz Sharif.
Due to defiance of notices, Court had Issued Non-bailable warrants of Nawaz Sharif’s Children and captain Safdar was arrested at the airport by the Nab authorities and later he was released on bail.
Ex-PM Nawaz Sharif appeared in the Nab court and left for the UK where his Wife Kulsoom was operated for Throat Cancer. According to his party Sources, he Will return to Pakistan in January next year. He has decided not to face the trial after conviction. Ex PM’s Daughter and His Son in law are facing Trial of Panama Papers and Mayfair Flats Issue. The PML (N) also seems to be disintegrated as there have been several intra Party differences especially the question of next party chief as Ex-PM Nawaz Sharif cannot become the party chief after disqualification by Supreme Court in Panama Papers case.
In addition, the Senate has also passed a resolution against its own of. to stop the doors for the disqualified Person to head the political party as earlier the Ruling party had been successful to get the bill passed in Senate to pave the way for Nawaz to head the party. There are also family differences between two brothers i.e Nawaz Sharif and Shahbaz Sharif as well. Nawaz wants his daughter to head the party whereas some want Shahbaz as Party chief such a situation has further confused Sharif Family.
Furthermore, The arrest of Sharjeel Memon of PPP in 6 billion corruption case by NAB, has further affected the Pakistan People’s Party popularity among the people of Sindh as it has raised the eyebrows of the PPP MNAs and MPAs to change their loyalties and get themselves as the Corruption of billions of rupees unfolds .
The arrest has also sent shock waves to the PPP Co-chairman Asif Ali Zardari to discuss the matter and get efforts to get him released from the NAB.
PPP has been giving the impression that they have been targeted as NAB is aggressive Towards PPP and Flexible towards Nawaz Sharif and His family members. To some extentappeared in their opinion may have weight age as you all know that Nawaz and his family have been left for with Accountability court proceedings even Nawaz Sharif himself absconding from the Trial proceedings against him and his family.
PPP’s state of affairs is further aggravated by Agha Siraj Durrani The Speaker Sindh Assembly who had insulted the Vote in a public gathering sparking a wave of protest against him through Social Media, Electronic and Print Media. People Expressed their anger strongly and condemned his remarks for the sanctity of Vote and its importance. People went to say that PPP has devalued their Vote mandate and they may face challenges in Upcoming Election of 2018 and when they reach out to the people again and seek votes for the candidates.
Even Party’s Co-Chairman Asif Zardari, His Sister Faryal Talpur, and Awais Muzaffar Tappi are also facing corruption charges and soon may be booked for the cases pending against them especially the misappropriation in Development funds, awarding contracts to Bahria Town and selling Properties of millions , China cutting issues , Sale of Jobs and other cases . These high profile figures may soon be in the grip of NAB given to their cases sensitivity.
Thirdly, The Division of MQM into two factions i.e. MQM London and MQM Pakistan has further widened the political vacuum of urban politics as earlier MQM was the major party having urban mandate specially from Karachi and Hyderabad. The Division was caused by Altaf Husain’ Hate speech against Armed Forces and connections with Indian agency Raw which prompted action against the party’s working and the Rangers commandos Raided the MQM Headquarters situated at 90 and arrested several most wanted criminals and seized a large number of sophisticated weapons bullets and other explosive material. The Rangers had also demolished MQM offices and the encroached land was evacuated with help of Rangers.
After such major offensive, MQM Pakistan was born headed by Dr Farooque Sattar. He reconstituted the Coordination Committee to escape action from Rangers.
The Division of MQM into Two factions i.e. London and Pakistan created disarray among the party and the old Party workers and candidates were divided some went in support of MQM London and Some supported the MQM Pakistan under new leadership i.e. Dr Farooque Sattar. The Division also created Space for Rebellious candidates to found a new party.
The Ex-Mayor of Karachi Mustafa Kamal intro Pakistan after self-exile and Established his own party namely Pak Sarzameen Party (PSP) and contacted the old companions of MQM to join the new party as MQM was under the influence of Altaf Hussain.
Many Notable figures joined the PSP including Anis Kaimkhani, Raza Haroon, Dr Sagheer Ahmed, Waseem Aftab, Anees Khan advocateAfkhar Randhawa, Bilquis Mukhtar and Hundreds of MQM workers joined the New Party.
The PSP has been termed as fastest growing New Party with many well known and veteran politicians are joining the party prior to Next General Elections of 2018.
Although, the PSP has not fielded any Candidate for either seat of Provincial Seats or National Assembly Seats as it has been newly established party but experts and political pundits are of the view that in Upcoming Elections it may have more seats from urban Population of Karachi and Hyderabad and May give a tough time to MQM Pakistan. The PSP is organizing its District Base throughout the Province of Sindh in order to get support from Interior Sindh.
The PSP has also organized biggest Public gatherings in big cities such as Karachi and Hyderabad and attracted huge number people. The party may take time to get deeply rooted in mainstream politics.
In this whole Process, the PTI seems to be well ahead of all other parties and considered the hot favourite for the upcoming General Elections of 2018, given its current pace and people friendly approach.
It is the only Party that unfolded the PPP-PML (N) Nexus of political turns through a traditional term “Muk Muka” to deceive the people. PTI exposed the corruption of both parties and Staged sit in and carried out long March against the alleged Rigging in the Elections of 2013 in Punjab and how PTI’s mandate law of .
Jamaat Islami is also one of the moderate Islamic Parties which may influence the future Elections of 2018 as its Ameer Mr Siraj Haq has reinvigorated the party as it was in the times of Qazi Hussain Ahmed. Currently, PTI and JI have a coalition Government in KPK.
The efforts are underway by the religious parties to revive the MMA by uniting on the single platform and making the alliance of religious Parties to contest and field the joint and consensus candidates in General Elections of 2018.
In case, MMA is revived then JI may part ways from PTI but if MMA was not revived, then these two parties may remake their alliance in KP, Sindh, Punjab and Baluchistan to get maximum seats to form the Central and Provincial Governments.
As PPP has lost its vote bank in Punjab, KP, Baluchistan and PTI have been 2nd biggest Party in Punjab and leading party in KP in the last Election of 2013. Even PTI has won the NA -04 Seat recently.
PTI has been pursuing the expansion policy and they have the presence in all the four provinces including Azad Kashmir. They have got good well-known political figures and some are the Veteran PPP and PML –N stalwarts and their lookout are still on.
According to their party plan, they want to contest every seat in every province of Pakistan -be it Provincial Assembly or National Assembly or Senate.
The Smaller parties such as JUI, ANP, PML Q and PML (F) etc are not in position to clean sweep the election but they may get their seats wherever these have influenced such as JUI in KPK and convicted the ANP in KPK and Karachi, PML (Q) in Punjab and the PML (F) in Sindh .
These Parties will join the coalition of such party that will get the clear majority to form the Government as in Past it is evident from their alliances Especially, MQM, JUI and PML (F) intend to be the part of Govt either at provincial Level or in Central Government.
Although, JUI is a Religious party, yet it has remained coalition partner with PPP and currently in PML (N) led Govt. Similarly, MQM has remained the coalition partner with PPP.
Hence, after a detailed analysis, we have found that PML(N) has been baffled by NAB references, PPP has not organized itself in Punjab, Parties are KP, Baluchistan. PPP may take seats in Sindh especially the areas where it has more influence at home constituencies where PPP backed candidates have been winning for many years such as Larkana, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Jacobabad, Dadu, Nawabshah etc.
In this context, PTI is well prepared to sweep the upcoming General Elections as the ground is empty and PTI has to work out on a rigorous Plan to get the majority to form the government.
PTI has upper hand in existing circumstances unless there is any possible deal between the PPP and PML (N) as these two parties are well known to have such secret deals to put dust in the eyes of People as we have seen the friendly opposition in the current government.
PTI should have strong candidates specially in Sindh to provide oppressed people of Sindh with an option to get rid of corrupt PPP that has played with their fortune and swallowed their development budget and even insulted the Votes given by the people of Sindh on basis of votes, they were put in power but in return they have given the dusty and bumpy roads, sewage-filled cities and flooded streets. There is no name of Merit and Jobs are sold like hot cakes in millions of rupees.
In Sindh, to Succeed PTI has to approach the Feudal, landlords Tribal chieftains and Sayeds who make up of 90 percent of MPAs in Sindh along with Minorities. Only, non-corrupt people may be included in the party.
Finally, it all depends upon the Election Commission of Pakistan to hold free, fair and transparent election by Implementing Electronic Voting machines and Biometric Machines to League the chances of rigging and bogus voting.
The Army may be deployed in and outside the polling stations so that law and order situation may be improved. The Polling stations may be linked through GIS system so that polling locations may track through GPS.
The Upcoming Government will have to address the issue of Load shedding if left unresolved by current regime , Economy, IMF loan Repayments, Terrorism Issue, Governance, Education and Health Sector Improvement and More Importantly to devise an effective foreign Policy of Pakistan on basis equality where the nation may not be forced to do more despite doing enough and having rendered unlimited sacrifices in fighting Terrorism .
Social Media and Polarization of our Society
Social Media has witnessed a mushroom growth that has impacted the discourse of political, cultural and religious systems by providing the equal opportunity of freedom of expression and of sharing an opinion or viewpoint on any issue.
Social Media has played a greater role in right-wing politics that paved the way for populist politicians to reach out to their voters.
Though Social Media has connected the people around the world, at the same time, it is causing division or disintegration and facilitating the social media lobbyists to polarize the communication so much the people support the arguments or opinions or political tirades against leaders without fact checking.
The world has been rocked by social networks such as Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube because the users of these social networks have already surpassed millions and are growing, but due to the limited regulatory framework, fake news, cyberbullying, extremism and terrorism has reached new heights.
The influencers’ interactions with social media users have polarized the political and social circles that led to the formation of online echo chambers, a tactic of social media recommendations by politicians to influence the users to strengthen their narrative regardless of facts that whether it is right or wrong, but it is knit in a manner that echo chambers appear to be normal for the people thus changing the way of thinking and increasing the supporters base.
The echo chambers post such content that we enjoy a lot while reading, while keeping us away from the content that may stir a debate or arguments or expression of our disagreement over certain social, economic, religious, cultural or policy matters.
The echo chambers keep ideas flowing on a regular basis to the one side –the positive side of the argument, while its negative side is deliberately concealed to hide the facts.
This is the big issue that might be discussed with students, who should be informed and taught at school, college or degree level so that positive and constructive use of this digital medium could be ensured.
Social media connectivity around the world is undoubtedly amazing but the problems it created for both people and students are very dangerous, and need to be addressed and regulated.
Digital media, especially social media, for a long time remained unbridled to post any content that may fall in the purview of hatred, racism, bullying, derogatory remarks, character assault, rebellion, or anti-state elements instigating people to create chaos using the olive branch of social media. Since it was not monitored given the type of content being circulated and the information of people posting such content, including their motives behind such content as may have a constant flow of information that is recommended by the users pretending to be professionals, experts and mentors.
Alarmingly, people without fact-checking go on sharing the content and thus creating hype for such an issue as does not have a basis and was the result of a conspiracy to exert pressure on some person or leaders to get some favours.
“The schools and colleges should chalk out the initiative to create awareness and practice of fair use so that social platforms should not post single or one-sided opinions or arguments but should welcome both so that positive use could be ensured. This will further the importance of social media.“
Sometimes, the active echo chambers or volcanoes erupt over such issues as may be beneficial for the wider circle of society, but this finds serious criticism masterminded by people with an individual approach. They term it detrimental for them since it did not serve their interests, though it might have been beneficial for general people.
Humans have an intuitional inclination to communicate with like-minded people or the people with the same choices on social media, thus the echo chambers get even stronger. The discourse that discourages dissenting voices always comes under fire from the thinkers and intellectuals of the nation since it is tantamount to concealing the facts from the people.
The world is coming closer after the covid-19 pandemic that engulfed the entire world, bringing misery and economic crisis. The social media debates go with biased and unbiased approaches regarding getting the vaccine. Some optimists termed it great, while some pessimists or biased approaches raised questions.
The echo chambers try to influence their opinions and win support.Similarly, echo chambers of both Democrats and Republicans only canvassed for their candidates but the leaders instigated the masses to attack Capitol Hill through social media and emotional speeches using their influence on social media, especially Twitter .
Some researchers have found that echo chambers influence people to win support but social media influencers have a follower-base of millions, and may polarize the public and politics, since influencers share success stories like internet marketers compelling you to buy their products.
The opinion leaders and experts reveal that for the last two decades, the percentage of American people having consistently holding liberal or conservative beliefs— rather than a blend of the two, which is the case for most people— has increased from 10 percent to over 20. Beliefs about the other side are becoming more negative creating an alarming situation.
Since 1994, the number of people who see the opposing political party as a threat to “the nation’s well-being or security” has doubled, which heralds how deepening polarization has predictable results raising eyebrows.
The government shutdowns, violent protests, scathing attacks on elected officials, the capitol Hill incident –all indicate that social media have been polarizing the political system and divided the nation each passing day due to echo chambers of both mainstream parties regarding the issues of health, security, human rights, employment and environment.
According to evidence from empirical research conducted on US politicians, politicians following extreme ideologies attracted a larger public audience than those who were moderate, which is the real example of echo chambers.
Usually, messages containing extreme thoughts, emotional instigation, patriotism, or criticizing the opposition received a warm welcome on social media platforms than those messages reflecting merely information.
The polarization of issues and political ideology will have serious repercussions in future that should be addressed on a timely basis so that societies could be saved from further isolation and disintegration.
The issues could be resolved through educating the people and creating awareness about the fair and professional use of social media channels for advocacy for winning support for legislation, an issue, a policy or employment.
Instead of showing the dark side of the issue, we have to educate people regarding both pros and cons of matters of importance for the general public rather than misleading the people with biased approaches to oppose the initiative of the government, community or civil society for the general benefit.
Social Media network operators are the bigwigs and the most influential in this.They cannot be controlled but only be regulated by framing such laws that may ensure fair use of this digital platform and are careful so that users may not face any legal issue by discussing sensitive issues such as desecration of holy places, religions, personalities, anti-state tirades, rebellion, terrorism, extremism and so on. The sensitive issue may stir protests and cause legal proceedings, if the cyber-regulatory laws are implemented to discourage the influence of one-sided opinions or campaigns.
We cannot deny the importance of social media platforms as they provide equal opportunity to people to express and share their thoughts or opinions, but safe and thoughtful use of these platforms will encourage healthy discourse and prove pivotal in promoting dialogue to discuss social, economical and cultural issues peacefully without hitting the sentiments of other communities.
Thus, echo chambers will be less powerful to build a narrative that is appealing but the readers will be engaging themselves in the debates that need interaction.
Undoubtedly, social media platforms have changed the political and social approach of the people and enabled face-to-face digital interaction through video and audio conference calls, so their fair use will mitigate their cons manifold.
The social media networks apply algorithms to connect you with like-minded people but it is up to you whether your engagement in communication is either unbiased or biased.
Social media should be promoting positive discourse to explore the political and economic solutions to the problems of people by reflecting the two sides of the coin so that the discourse be constructive and problem-solving. Social media has given a voice to marginalized people and governments are compelled to resolve the issues of people on a priority basis due to trending topics of social media.
Even the populist leaders may face resistance from social media as the public makes the most of the freedom of expression and criticizes the role of politicians for their failure to address the issues of the public.
In recent times, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter have been creating history in highlighting issues of both public and national interest but at the same time such platforms have been taken by storm by those influencers who continue to feed the news about their vested interests and create psychosocial hype for any issue that may jolt the power corridors of Government.
The politicians always take to Twitter for their precise viewpoint and policy debate and are usually followed by millions of followers. Even the print and electronic media take the tweets as policy statements or the narrative of some party or group.
The schools and colleges should chalk out the initiative to create awareness and practice of fair use so that social platforms should not post single or one-sided opinions or arguments but should welcome both so that positive use could be ensured. This will further the importance of social media.
The Conspiracies And The PTI Government
[su_dropcap style=”default” size=”3″ class=””]E[/su_dropcap]ver since the PTI emerged victorious in the landmark General Elections of 2018, formed the government in Center, Punjab, KPK and coalition Government in Baluchistan, the Oppositions parties could not digest their defeat and start raising their hue and cry regarding the credibility of elections owing to RTS failure. The Opposition’s recent rumpus in the parliament and boycotting the proceedings, has prompted the PTI government to take the tough stand against them owing to their futile attempts to overthrow the government since the parties are facing several corruption charges.
Pakistan has been facing the severe economic crisis due to flawed policies, rampant corruption and mounting burden of loans acquired from the IMF program by both – the PPP and the PML-N. The existing circumstances created by the losers in General Elections 2018 have aggravated the situation.
The Corrupt elite politicians are pushing hard to influence government to issue yet another NRO as practices in Past in Musharraf era.
With PTI hardly completing its two and a half months in government, the impatience of Opposition has no limits as Moulana Fazal playing key role in bridging the gap between two arch-rivals I.e PPP and PML-N persuading them to hatch conspiracies against the Government by bringing a Resolution against the Government in the parliament since PM Imran Khan has already scraped their evil designs by securing Bailout package of $12 Billion Dollars from Saudi Arabia and yet another is likely expected from UAE on the basis of deferred payments facility.
Pakistan’s best friend China has also announced to help Pakistan come out of this financial quagmire by pledging a handsome amount since Pakistan might have suspended the plans to avail bailout package from IMF given the Trump’s absolute pressure on IMF not to give any financial Assistance since America thought that Pakistan will repay the Chinese loans with IMF program. This was the very setback that pushed Pakistan to go for alternate options to strengthen rupee against the dollar and fulfil the balance of payments issue to repay the loans availed by former governments.
The former Finance Minister Ishaq Dar currently availing political asylum, as per reports, have said that the PTI government is responsible for all the mess as their inefficiency and incompetence have dragged the country into the financial quagmire.
Well, Mr Dar has held responsible to the PTI Government but if he is true and innocent, then why he has applied for political asylum despite the suspension of his legal travel documents such as Passport and ID card etc.
It is an old custom that when one cannot solve the issue and dragged the country into financial crisis then, it is easy to shift the responsibility and start blaming the successor for the mess generated by them. Such face-saving tactics are being practised for long to befool the public so that they may not change their loyalties and remain stuck to your side despite injustices and breach trust.
It is debatable that why the arch-rivals have come closer only because they are being prosecuted for the corrupt practices and they need another NRO as offered by former President Zardari to Sharif brothers when both Nawaz and Shahbaz were disqualified to contest Elections and NRO offered by Musharraf to sharifs on the request of Saudi Arab.
Apparently, the joint Opposition is playing a dangerous game of instigating the sentiments and emotions of the people against PTI government such as Zardari is reportedly blamed the government that he was being tried in fake accounts case only because of 18th Amendment since the Government intends to repeal the said amendment. Such a statement has sent tremors of the earthquake to the provinces to resist such movement and is an attempt to create chaos to fail the government.
Perhaps, they are not aware of the fact that the people this time, are well aware of evil designs of these monsters and their misleading, irritating and instigating remarks are aimed at diverting the attention of the people in order to hide their corruption and misappropriation of billions of rupees. They are using the elevated platform –the parliament for personal gains.
Imran Khan is a sportsman and everybody knows that a sportsman always remains under pressure in nail-biting contests but never succumbs to pressure. So these triangular games of PPP, JUI and PML-N won’t bear any fruit because all three are unpopular among the people and their claims of being populist leaders are baseless and deceptive.
Pakistan’s image as a peace-loving country has been recognized with the effective, robust and independent internal and external policies of Imran Khan. In just two and a half months, he has already proved his worth and initiated “Clean and Green Initiative”; to make Pakistan environmentally safe with massive plantation and cleanliness drive.
PM Khan has also initiated the much echoed and trumpeted “Naya Pakistan” Housing Program to construct 5 million houses for the people throughout Pakistan. This was the really much-awaited project that will benefit people with low-income level.
PTI’s innovation did not stop here, PM Khan went on to announce first-ever “Pakistan Citizens portal” to address the problems faced by Pakistanis globally. It is an online complains management system that will help people get their problems resolved through the portal and by using the Mobile application. The Portal caters to the needs of local people as well as the ex-pats residing in any part of the world. The newly launched portal will prove instrumental in addressing the issues of ex-pats and will play a pivot role in maximizing foreign remittances by removing the complexities.
Even some economists are of the view that Pakistan will prosper if such initiatives are taken, and in coming days, Pakistan will shift from an aid receiver to self-reliance. PTI has painted a positive picture of Pakistan nationally and internationally, it will likely succeed in the resolution of age-long issues of terrorism, health, education, unemployment, energy crisis and economic crisis. These issues are currently dubbed as the biggest challenges.
With strong independent Foreign policy and maintaining cordial diplomatic relations on the basis of mutual benefits and understanding with the neighbours and resolving all the issues with neighbours including the core issue of Kashmir with India, these initiatives will serve as the basis to steer Pakistan out of this political and economic conundrum and impasse.
The opposition’s drum-beating will not serve any interests of the public rather it further plunge the country into governance and financial crisis. Though, soon after elections, Moulana Fazal Rahman’s proposal not to take the oath, received the negative response since all the parties seemed reluctant to such move especially PPP distanced itself from voting or any APCs held by the opposition’s parties.
It is imperative that PTI should not give any heed to such mounting pressure and should only focus on their projects and service delivery. These dissent voices will have the logical end with the passage of time since they don’t have any serious national issue to raise their voice except self-centric desires of getting immunity or NRO to get rid of corruption charges levelled by State institutions and investigated by FIA and NAB. The PTI Government appears resolved to continue the accountability process till recovery of the looted wealth within the country, Dubai and other parts of the world. The Opposition’s claim of being sole targets is baseless and aimed at point-scoring and an abortive effort to get public support. Since PM IK presented himself voluntary to start accountability process if the opposition has any evidence.
PM Khan is ready to face these challenges and emerge as victorious as the country is desperately looking for an honest and dedicated leadership that steers the country out of crisis and brings prosperity, peace and sustainable growth by crossing all the impediments that may hamper Pakistan from becoming a true welfare state.
Adopting the Best Governance System in Pakistan
Pakistan has always oscillated between the good and the bad Governance Models as both the civil and the military powers holding the reins of the country one after another. It is unfortunate for the people of Pakistan that despite the passage of 71 years of Independence, we have not been able to find the best Governance Model yet that may serve our subjects in a better way and bring social and economic prosperity.
The Post-Independence period was tattered as Pakistan faced various economic, Social and infrastructural challenges.Pakistan was deprived of its due share from the joint resources at the time of partition.
Yet, Quaid’s able leadership and brave leadership did not let Pakistan go down since he was visionary and had the clear roadmap to steer the county through crisis to prosperity with planning and untiring efforts. He was of the View that if Pakistan’s problems were not addressed or resolved, It may have failed as the state.
The consequential Martial Laws furthered the woes of people that implemented dictatorial laws which were not meant for the people and were contrary to human rights as safeguarded by the constitution. These were the basis that prompted people to denounce such the military coups and raised their voices to regain their freedom of speech and freedom to act according to one’s wishes and intentions.
Pakistan has experienced both the Presidential and parliamentary form of governance. It has also experienced Civil and Military coups and even sustained so far except the Fall of Dhaka in 1971 when Sheikh Mujib was denied the Government despite having an absolute majority to form the government.
As a result of Governance Crisis, Pakistan has suffered on many fronts i.e economic, social and Security. The Ill-will of the feudal nature of Politicians has forcibly sunk the ship of Pakistan by creating a leadership vacuum and gave rise to corrupt practices that played havoc with its fragile and fractured path.
The changing Governance Models, lack of proper Constitutional Development and consensus building have forced the Fragile state to fall in the Governance crisis since no policy framework was followed that may have provided the basis of Constitutional development. The Institutional Building was not initiated that triggered the constant pull in the civil-military relationship.
That was evident from the promulgation of First Constitution on 23rd March 1956, Nine years after the independence, unfortunately, the Martial law was imposed after two and half years of its inaction on 7th October 1958 by the powerful man in our history General Ayoob Khan.
Being a military General, Ayoob khan wanted a controlled and reasonably weaker form of Democracy, since he believed the western form of Democracy does not suit to Pakistan. Consequently, he introduced the 1962 Constitution which came into force on 1st March 1962.
The biggest change in form governance was the introduction of the Presidential form of government since all the powers vested in the president. He was both head of state and head of Government. The Provinces were given autonomy, equality of mankind, independence of the judiciary; rights of minorities were salient features of the constitution.
The Islamic advisory council was also constituted to advise Govt. over Islamic injunctions or laws.
The presidential form of Government was more suitable since all the power vested in President who was elected directly and there was no burden of ineffective legislators just the skeleton Ministers, Provincial Governors and the staff was enough to run the state affairs in a very effective manner since decision making was on the fast track.
“Even the founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam had envisaged 71 years ago during his speech found in the handwritten paper that the presidential form of Government is suitable for Pakistan since a parliamentary form of Government does not work owing to feudal vested interests, illiteracy and lack of visionary leadership.
Actually, he had given clear roadmap that as long as feudalism and feudal approach exists in Pakistan, the democracy cannot develop its roots deeper since these feudal politicians have vested interests that are detrimental to people who vote them to power and tantamount to Islamic Ideologies.”
With the resignation of General Ayoob, the constitutional crises once again aggravated with the abrogation of 1962 constitution.
The story unfolded when Sheikh Mujib ur Rahman had succeeded in winning the majority in the first ever general elections of Pakistan held in 1970 but the then military ruler, President General Yahya Khan, had refused categorically to transfer power to him. Sheikh Mujib was imprisoned in Mianwali. General Yahya resigned succumbing to internal pressure.
Then we had the best constitution gifted by Shaheed Zulfiquar Ali Bhutto. The 1973 constitution promulgated on 14th August 1973 with an overwhelming majority. The 1973 constitution was the turning point in the history of Pakistan as it was considered the complete constitution which safeguarded the rights of every citizen. Though East Pakistan was separated in 1971, yet Bhutto steer the country out of governance and constitutional crisis and had solved the long-standing issue.
Even, he was not spared, he was hanged under Zia regime and was inducted in the Murder plot of Nawaz Mohammad Ahmad Khan Kasuri’s, consequently hanged on 3rd April 1978. Bhutto during his premiership reshaped the foreign policy and made people friendly and people-centric decisions that disrupted the status quo and had great economic extinct since he wanted to establish a World Islamic Bank in Pakistan with the help of Islamic Countries.
Bhutto’s speech UN general assembly still echoes in our hearts as No leader in our history had made such fearless and emotional speech that rocked the Superpowers.
Unfortunately, we could not get such a brave and fearless leader who could speak eye to eye with the enemies and even to the Superpowers.
Though we had a leader like Mohammad Khan Junejo who was also a good Statesman and had ignited the real dream of Welfare State his powers were curtailed by former Chief Martial law Administrator and later Elected President through the so-called referendum General Ziaul Haq.
Later, Benazir Bhutto, the great daughter of Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto rose to heights of success but his teammates sunk her ship through corrupt practices in Government. Then, Pakistan went into the two-party system i.e. PPP and PML from 1988 to October 1999.
In 1999, Pakistan experienced yet another military involvement that sent PML-N government packing by General Musharraf. PM Nawaz was jailed and later released on the interference of Saudi kings and exiled with family.
Musharraf after three years, held elections and his Party PML-Q win the elections. In 2007, Benazir Bhutto returned from Self Exile and apparently assassinated during the Public gathering.
Benazir’s Murder brought the turmoil in the country. PPP won 2008 elections on a sympathy vote and Zardari became the President after Musharraf relinquished due to fears of impeachment.
It was the first time that any civilian Government had completed their term and laid the foundation of Democratic Transition.
The PPP government was not impressive and effective but the only good thing they had done that was the 18th amendments that had offered autonomy to the provinces and few federal ministries were devolved to the Provinces including Health and Education.
The 18th amendment also paved the way for the premier to be elected for the third term as earlier it was just two terms. PML-N won 2013 elections with the majority and completed their term but PM Nawaz was disqualified due to Panama Papers case few months before completion of the tenure.
Finally, democratic transition worked again, and the PTI came into power with the slogan of change and making Naya Pakistan.
if we analyze our history, we would be disappointed to know that most of the time, the Martial Law Administrator governed our country as compared to the civilian Government. This gives the message that Pakistani electoral framework only suits a single powerful system means the presidential form of Government as practised in Turkey, Afghanistan and US.
The presidential form of Government is the strong as the president is the head of State and the head of a Government at the same time. He appoints his ministers from professionals, technocrats and Legislature. He makes timely decisions as a Parliamentary form of Government does not allow implementing policies without the debate and without approval from the parliament.
We are still going through a transition and learning from our past mistakes, yet we need to mull over that which Governance Model suits our people–Parliamentary form of Government or Presidential form of Government or Mixture of both.
It is not the time of meddling with both systems or engage in the debate of good or bad system but we should adopt the best governance system suits Pakistan and benefits the common men and bridges the gap between state and the subjects. The system which provides access to justice offers equal opportunities regardless of religion, caste or creed.
It has been seven decades since independence that we are struggling to form a strong and vibrant system that benefits the people of Pakistan. The issue warrants public debate and is open to the public to give their input which system of Governance may be fruitful for them that strengthens the federation, Federating units and builds the basis of good governance.
Though we have a new government in place but the old players of Opposition Parties PPP, PML-N and JUI, MMA and ANP are giving a tough time to hide their corrupt practices. Therefore, if we want the state to flourish and prosper, we need to put the presidential form of governance for a four or five year to analyze whether it is physible for Pakistan and produces desired results. Either, We have to part ways with the parliamentary form of Government or adhere to the Presidential form of Government as practised in developed nations of the world.
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